If childhood is an invention, how did children once grow up?

‘Education’ stands for blackboards and computers, school benches and sculleries, china dolls or rag dolls, pies and puddings and a roast goose or bowls of pallid porridge. At the Institute of Education, beyond schooling, studying, and training, ‘Education’ encompasses bringing up children and growing up.

Book cover with girl with large collar and spectacles reading a newspaper.When I look at history and sociology of childhood, our literature makes me wish I were a scholar instead of a librarian! The first page I opened in a random historical overview sucked me in, back to a time when young boys went through one or two initiations: changing from an infant’s gown to breeches and graduating from those to long trousers.

Further on, you learn how the shift from larger households to nuclear family was reflected in new forms of celebration, like children’s birthdays and Christmas. In the course of the 18th and 19th centuries, well-off families provided their offspring with more and more toys and books, particularly during the festive season.

Book cover with impressionist painting of five yound children on the beach.In Childhood in modern Europe (2018) – available as a printed or electronic book – Colin Heywood develops a debate of the concept of childhood and youth in the past centuries: Did those clear cuts between the stages of life exist, or were there gradual transitions and grey zones? Did most people really marry very early, girls usually in their teens, or was there a protracted tension between maturity for relationships and lack of opportunity?

With our books, you can wander through time, starting with Childhood in classical Athens or other titles at the Institute of Archaeology and the Main Library and ending up in the 21st century with Designing modern childhoods or Children and young people’s cultural worlds.

Book cover, black, with ancient Chinese drawing of adults and children.If you want to turn your mind to other parts of the world, our Comparative Education Collection might be just right: I found debates on stereotypes and hubris, exclusion and oppression; I found accounts of childhood in Germany and Ireland, Japan and China, Southern Africa and Australia, and there must be many more books and, of course, articles.

For autobiographical and fictional accounts of childhood and youth in previous generations, turn to our Education in Literature Collection; you will pass it on your way to the staircase in the middle of the Newsam Library.

If you want to do search for literature, you can start on the Library catalogue, UCL Explore. It covers plenty of online articles, too. You can move on to databases through the link at the top of the catalogue or gather search tips on our dedicated webpage and go from there.

I have compiled a few search terms for history of childhood for you:

  • To find reports on childhood, try both the term ‘childhood’ and the term ‘children’; this is essential to find all titles or subject terms or keywords.
  • To find ‘social history’ of childhood, also try ‘children – history’ and ‘children – social conditions’ (you need not type the dashes).
  • For family relations, employ the asterisk for family/families and parents/parent etc.: ‘famil*’/’parent*’.
  • In addition to ‘teenager*’, look for ‘adolescent*’, ‘youth’, ‘young adult*’, and remember that teenagers also fall under ‘children’.
  • There are ready-made search categories for ‘children in literature’, ‘children in art’ and ‘children in motion pictures’!

If you need to share impressions of former times with children, have a look at our Curriculum Resources Collection; it goes far beyond textbooks, abounding with picture books, non-fiction and fiction.

As regards the education systems in former times and different places, we have much more again to offer you. Unlike most libraries, we keep many older academic books as well as our old textbooks and collect more historical textbooks and exam papers so that you can follow the contents and ways of teaching throughout time, especially history and geography. Many old materials are in library stores, so you will have to find them first on the catalogue.

Any questions, consult the IOE LibGuides or of course a librarian: we are here to help you!

Library trolley with books on history of childhood in Europe, China, etc.

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Facets of Dickens’ world at the Newsam Library

Two current exhibitions on Charles Dickens, reviewed on this blog, draw you into children’s worlds in the 19th century.

Book cover with painting of four young children in fine clothes playing with toy bricks.You imagine, perhaps, reading or being read to from an illustrated volume of stories on a cosy armchair, by the glow of the fireplace or the bright light of the newest lamps… or else crawling down mine shafts or climbing up chimneys in relentless shifts, blackened by the coal or soot around you, invariably hungry.

If you want to find out more about Dickens or the history of childhood in general, you are in the right place at UCL Libraries. You are particularly well positioned for both at the Newsam Library, UCL Institute of Education, with its focus on the history of education, comparative education, and resources for children and teachers.

First of all, you will find some of Dickens’ works at the IOE and more at the UCL Main Library. You can choose between the original texts and abridged versions, illustrated editions and graphic novels, film adaptations and audio-books. Consult the catalogue to locate your items of interest on the shelves of the Curriculum Resources Collection.

Book cover with colourful drawing of Victorian house, furniture, toys, etc.

If you look for ideas on how to study and teach texts by Dickens, the Newsam Library stocks adaptations, study guides to the literary texts, and non-fiction for readers of all ages.

• Charles Dickens Museum at 48 Doughty Street.

If you need to tell children about their peers in Victorian times, about homes and cities, schools and factories, horse-carts and railways, toys and games, food and feasts, you are sure to find lovely material.

Charles Dickens Museum!

Book cover with comic-style illustration of candle-lit hall in mansion.

For Great expectations, the IOE has got two abridged and illustrated versions and several study guides. But that’s not where it stops.

One edition intrigues with a graphic novel and audio-book; the text is adapted for a lower vocabulary and has a glossary.

Another title around this coming-of-age novel combines a dramatisation and a study guide in audio format.

UCL Main Library has, of course, the original text, while UCL Special Collections boasts a copy of 1891 once owned by George Orwell.


Decorative book cover with silhouettes of people and ghosts.Bright red book cover withschoolboy playing Scrooge, barefoot in nightcap.For Dickens’ world-famous story A Christmas carol, see the delightful blogpost What the Dickens! by Beverley Hinton. She covers the background and many manifestations, both in print and on stage and screen.

For more advice on researching the history and sociology of childhood, consult a librarian – and watch this space!

'Great expectations' and 'Hard times' in various formats plus study guides.Selection of children's books and textbooks relating to Charles Dickens.Library trolley with books on history of childhood in Europe, China, etc.

A signature of Charles Dickens, energetic, in one stroke, underlined many times.Exhibition dates:

Picture credits:

Drawing of three spinning tops.

  • Charles Dickens Museum at 48 Doughty Street. Credit, Siobhan Doran; photography copyright, Dickens Museum.
  • Spinning tops: From ‘Children’s games throughout the year’ (1949) by Leslie Daiken.
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The ‘gloomy sky’ and the ‘ruddy glow’ of Dickens’ London

Dickens calendar for 1908, with paintings of woman in bonnet and man in top hat and Dickens. “It was a Sunday evening in London, gloomy, close and stale… Nothing to see but streets, streets, streets. Nothing to breathe but streets, streets, streets.” A  ‘Dickensian’ world has become a figure of speech, evoking grim workhouses and haunted graveyards, frosty snowy streets and cosy fire-lit homes.

Two special exhibitions in London will give you vivid insights into the life of the author — born on February 7th, 1812 — and his characters.

Senate House Library has mustered illustrated editions of Dickens’ works together with images of real locations that inspired him.

He had experienced factory work and debtors’ prison as a child and systematically researched squalid slums fostering crime and prostitution or schools notorious for child abuse.

Two children bent over their work in the factory.

Many portraits seem just lifted out of his stories.

Ragged barefoot street children lounge about, amongst them a boy wearing a bowler hat and smoking a pipe, evidently a future gangster boss. Young children are seen squeezing into dark and dangerous mine shafts. An item in a charity report is titled “An orphan, naked and starving, hidden in a coal-hole”.

There are Government reports on child labour in workhouses, early pieces of investigative journalism, and documents from charities, including nearby Foundling hospital and Great Ormond Street Children’s Hospital. In a video, a descendant of Dickens explains his dedication to relieving the lot of paupers.

When you see those revolting pictures of real and fictitious characters – including Dickens himself in a biography (above) – you appreciate the grotesque nature of his figures and settings more. Most of us cannot begin to imagine the horrors of daily life for countless people only five or six generations ago.

The show Childhood in Dickensian London focuses on young heroes and heroines who are deprived of means and support but strong of will and character. A number of them reverse roles by taking care of relatives at a tender age.

We also learn that 19th-century popular culture was not so different from ours.

• Charles Dickens Museum at 48 Doughty Street.

When Dickens he wanted to throw a limelight onto child labour and poverty, he chose a novella over a pamphlet – the result was his cult story A Christmas carol. Stories published in instalments kept the audience in suspense and stirred empathy, just like our television series do; when a character died, there was collective grief.

In order to get even closer to the celebrated author and his world, you you need not venture any further than Doughty Street, just beyond Brunswick Square and Coram Fields. Behind one of those facades of dark bricks, neat but rather plain and narrow, you may see chandeliers blink and red velvet curtains shine, from a splendid family home spreads over five floors.

The Charles Dickens Museum surrounds you with its massive sideboards and silverware, oriental rugs and framed pictures, four-poster beds and washstands of the young household (with the first three of ten children). There is even an absurdly elegant suit and some precious jewellery – the man surely had written himself out of abject poverty.

Charles Dickens' study at 48 Doughty Street.

In the study, you marvel at by bookcases up to the ceiling and sense some of the inspiration at a desk like this, although it struck me that the room has no window. Dickens accomplished much of his toil by dark at any rate: he would go on long walks through London deep in the night to gather ideas and exercise his quill by candlelight or lamplight.

Servants' quarters, attic, at 48 Doughty StreetThere is an instructive video on the still very deficient lighting technologies of the time: reading was a privilege because books, obviously, were a privilege, but so was light, and so was time… Most people simply spent most waking hours, or at least most daylight hours, working. Even some at Dickens’ home: just step down into the kitchen and scullery.

You can even still get a whiff of the Victorian Christmas the writer is most famous for, even though the house is not decked for Christmas with evergreens nor the table graced by a roast turkey any more: right until Easter, the exhibition on Dickens and the business of Christmas presents original manuscripts and fine editions of Dickens’ countless stories for the occasion. The show maps out the overlap of the publishing industry and the festive time just as they both expanded considerably in the nineteenth century.

Charles Dickens' dining room at 48 Doughty Street.You will also observe some more of the idyllic side of Victorian life, with piles of delicious dishes (and the recipes compiled by Dickens’ wife Catherine), with games and dances and performances for children and adults and all of them together. A copy of the very first Christmas card has come to you from America!

Pile of tiny books with golden ornaments on the spines.


In my next blogposts, I shall give you tips on how to find literature about Charles Dickens and about the history of childhood in general at UCL Libraries. Until then, settle down at the bookcase set up in Senate House Library for you, ask a librarian or consult our catalogue and LibGuides – and enjoy these two exhibitions and the one about children’s play which I reviewed here before!


Exhibition dates:



Decorative book cover with silhouettes of people and ghosts. Book cover with comic-style illustration of candle-lit hall in mansion. Book cover with painting of four young children in fine clothes playing with toy bricks. Book cover with colourful drawing of Victorian house, furniture, toys, etc.

Some relevant books at the Newsam Library, UCL Institute of Education.

Picture credits:

  • Dickens calendar for 1908 at ‘Beautiful books’. Photography copyright, Dickens Museum.
  • Dickens at the blacking factory. From a biography by John Forster. Memorial edition, 1911. Copyright Senate House Library.
  • Charles Dickens Museum at 48 Doughty Street. Credit, Siobhan Doran; photography copyright, Dickens Museum.
  • Study. Credit, Newangle; photography copyright, Dickens Museum.
  • Servants’ quarters, attic. Credit, Siobhan Doran; photography copyright, Dickens Museum.
  • Dining room. Credit, Siobhan Doran; photography copyright, Dickens Museum.
  • Tiny books at ‘Beautiful books’. Photography copyright, Dickens Museum.
  • Wooden toys at ‘Play well’. Reprinted from Inventing Kindergarten by Norman Brosterman, collection Elyse and Lawrence B. Benenson.
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How wooden bricks can build a world : the Play Well exhibition at the Wellcome Gallery

Simple wooden toys: bricks with holes and sticks to connect them.Little wooden cubes and balls, plain and smooth, tiny wooden squares and triangles, painted in primary colours, all elevated to the status of exhibits in glass cases. Contemporary art perhaps? Much better.

The next case shows a wooden model of the iconic modernist home, Fallingwater, by Frank Lloyd Wright, with his claim that the toy bricks in preschool had influenced his creations. Then there is an old-fashioned, threadbare, teddy-bear with some red wool on his stomach: the boy who had opened the body and sewn it up again became a veterinarian doctor.

We are in the Wellcome Collection in London, on the Euston Road, in a free exhibition on children’s play throughout the past few generations. Be prepared to break out into inarticulate exclamations of delight when you spot ‘your’ antiquated Lego bricks or hideous Barbie dolls. Mostly it is photographs and films, though, a sociological analysis of play and its various uses in education.

The voices of children are given ample room in interviews and documentaries. There is also a play area, although adults seem reluctant to use it, and there are, in fact, works of modern art. Some of them are shown exposed to little boys who take them apart and kick the parts around with a great din, but also undertake to stick them together to new sculptures, or is that playthings?

Children playing with wrecked cars between bleak brick houses.

There are entire playgrounds created by children: either with materials on grounds given to them for the purpose, or out of junk in disused urban spaces. Neither would be acceptable with today’s health and safety regulations: kids disembowelled cars, lit fires, and erected a famous wonky tower. A rather shocking snapshot has children dancing on graves and skipping over headstones; yet the fact which should shock us more is their restriction to a cemetery as their only green outdoors space.

The show follows the shifting focus from outdoors to indoors play, ending with the first computer games and with teenagers who have never been to the park down the road. The research into kids’ unsupervised movement from six miles three generations ago to literally the end of the road today looks particularly impressive on the satellite map of a suburban area – miles of fields and woods, still there at the edge of a city, but untrodden now by youngsters’ soles.

A large graph on the wall proves that children still appreciate physical activities; but instead of rough and tumble play and free roaming, they participate in sports, organised and supervised, as I assume. Digital and other types of quiet play have evidently increased, while pretend play has dropped enormously. This must be as worrying as the decline of exercise. Some more objects in showcases, some of them found objects, remind us that a young mind can transform everything into something else – the simpler the thing, I reckon, the richer the possibilities!

“Let’s plan my dream wedding”  versus “Vengeance is mine”. Dolls, 1990’s.

Debates on gender stereotypes in toys and games are due in this context, and the Wellcome obliges with a hilarious report on the Barbie Liberation Organization. I will not spoil your amusement at their subversive sabotage of those grotesquely exaggerated male and female dolls! It took place one generation ago – yet attitudes have moved backward as well as forward, as the adjacent display of Lego kits in sugary pink and turquoise demonstrates. If you like, look at my previous blogposts on historical gender-specific play and reading.

Hulk with diabetes device, Black Barbie with discoloured skine, playmobil figure in wheelchair.

A Barbie model with discoloured skin and a Hulk with diabetes knocked me out but should not have – I read about a diverse and inclusive society every single day, especially in London, so children’s books and games and toys should reflect it. Moreover, we get a glimpse of play centres for refugees, popping up in the nowhere of camps but adhering to detailed plans.

Some child psychologists and educationalists have put play into the centre of their approaches. The work of Friedrich Fröbel, for instance, features in this exhibition, starting with the lovely boxes of simple blocks and pegs, rings and strings. The Reggio Emilia schools, founded after the war by citizens not experts, fill one wall of the gallery.

Simple fabric toys: colourful knitted balls with loops.

If you want to learn more about these psychological and educational theories, a number of nearby University College London libraries are a good place to start.

The Newsam Library at the UCL Institute of Education holds plenty of literature on Lowenfeld and Winnicott, Fröbel and Reggio Emilia, and other teaching systems, like those of Maria Montessori and Rudolf Steiner. The IOE Archives and Special Collections are full of treasures of child psychology, and obviously, education.

Book cover, bright yellow, playful.Current research into play is likewise covered by the Newsam Library; so are concrete suggestions for early years teachers and parents, since the IOE started out as a teacher training college and proudly continues as such.

The book published by the Wellcome Collection in conjunction with the exhibition, Michael Rosen’s book of play, has just hit our shelves, full of ideas for children of all ages. You can also buy it at the Wellcome shop next to the gallery right away.

Book coverAlso just in is a beautiful volume about Reggio Emilia preschools, combining philosophy of education with philosophy of architecture and richly illustrated with photographs. A metaproject for an environment for young children proposes “diversified, stimulating, and welcoming” school buildings and grounds, “a serene, amiable, livable place”. I assume we all wish we could have enjoyed that.

Play is serious, Rosen claims, developing creativity and resilience… If only we could find the time. Or make the time. Switch the screens off. Or switch our minds off. You have got a world in your head. Plenty of worlds.

Simple red toy block in the shape of a bridge.Play Well runs at the Wellcome Collection until 8 March 2020. Entrance free. Do not forget to visit the Wellcome Library also!


Simple green toy block in the shape of a vault.

Michael Rosen’s book of play : why play really matters, and 101 ways to get more of it in your life. London : Wellcome Collection, 2019.

Picture credits:

Yellow or light green Lego brick.Wooden toys; fabric toys: reprinted from Inventing Kindergarten by Norman Brosterman, collection Elyse and Lawrence B. Benenson.

Yellow or light green Lego brick.

Children in abandoned cars, Manchester, 1968 or 1969: photograph by Shirley Baker. ©2019 Nan Levy for The Estate of Shirley Baker.

Yellow or light green Lego brick.

Barbie Doll and G.I. Joe; Action Man, Barbie Doll, Playmobil figure: photographs by Thomas Farnet. ©2019 Wellcome Collection.

Toy block, red and Toy block, green: by An-d [CC BY-SA 3.0]. Yellow or light green Lego brick.Lego brick, light green: by Stilfehler [CC BY-SA 3.0]

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Spotlight on the NUT donation: two papers on domestic science education.

As you may already be aware, in late 2016 we received a wonderful donation from the National Union of Teachers (NUT) which included 380 pamphlet boxes containing material published by the NUT itself and many other organisations operating in the areas of education, children and families.

We have checked and sorted these publications, discovering many interesting items during the process. In February 2018 we created a LibGuide and also published a series of blog posts looking in more detail at a selection of these NUT resources. The focus of this blog is two early twentieth century documents about domestic science education for girls and housewives.

The first one “Training for Girls in Domestic Subjects”, is a paper read by Miss S.Dix at the NUT Hull Conference, 1912. Selina Dix (1859-1942) made a major contribution over thirty-five years to the welfare and education of girls and women in Hillfields, Coventry. Amongst other roles she was the first woman president of the Warwickshire County Teachers Association and a member of the executive of the National Union of Teachers.

Miss Dix’s opening statement that the value of an occupation should be determined rather by the manner of accomplishment than by its nature leads to a discussion about the nature and value of domestic tasks.

Miss Dix argued that Housework involves long, uncertain hours, small or no pay, and requires patience and endurance. It is often seen as an inferior occupation that does not require skill or intelligence to perform well. This lack of appreciation can lead to people being content to employ a badly trained general servant because not having to do menial tasks themselves is seen as ‘an addition to the dignity of their station in life.’ Girls at primary school may be unwilling to do their share of the menial tasks involved in domestic science lessons. Their mothers may assert ‘my daughter does not wash dishes at home, and I object to her doing so at the cookery class’.

However Miss Dix goes on to discuss that the knowledge and skills needed to provide a happy and health home life in as thrifty (both monetary and in terms of usage of time) manner as possible should be regarded as an admirable goal. Ideally those daughters who remain at home should earn recognition for the skill and effort they put into providing a comfortable base for their family members who earn a wage outside the home. Unfortunately complaints when things go wrong are often the only recognition given. Running a household must be seen as an attractive alternative to earning a wage in the increasing number of jobs available to women.

Miss Dix stated that girls at primary school need to be taught the skills they may not have the opportunity to learn from observing or helping their own mothers. Even if they find themselves in the future position of being able to employ their own servant it is always a good idea to know how that servant should be performing their work.

However practical classes should not be started at too early an age (nine was mentioned) because girls may not be able to lift full size saucepans, spell the names of utensils used or write well enough to quickly take notes in class. Also there is a danger of snippets of domestic science classes being taught which could lead to repetition, boredom and a growing dislike of domestic science subjects.

Instead it was suggested that at thirteen girls start a year, usually the last of formal education, devoted to domestic subjects. For six months classes in cookery, laundry and housecraft should be continuously taught in properly sized and equipped rooms. The final six months should include lessons in needlework (especially making and repairing clothes and bed linen), in household budgets and accounts, theoretical lessons in baby care, physical exercise (especially swimming) and in reading good literature. It is proposed that these lessons should be given in specially constructed and staffed centres which would alleviate interruptions to lower classes in schools. The nation as a whole would benefit from reduced infant mortality and healthier and happier households.

Twenty- six years later, in 1938, another NUT document was published, ‘Educating the Housewife’ by Miss K.M. Halpin. (An Address delivered to the Meeting of Domestic Science Teachers at the Margate Conference of the N.U. T.). Once again the idea was to promote the value of domestic science education although for women this time rather than school girls. Miss Halpin was the then Organising Secretary of the Women’s Gas Council which was a national organisation with 44 branches and over 9,000 members. Any woman who used gas in her home or was interested in home management could join a branch. Subjects discussed at regular meetings included interior decoration, hygiene, child welfare and dietetics.

Miss Halpin stated that it was not until the 1914-1918 World War that many women were able to make practical use of the better opportunities for education that had occurred. As a worker in an office, in a factory or in a shop women were used to being taught the job. Running a home is also a skilled occupation but many women did not have the opportunity to learn the necessary skills at home or at school.

In 1935 the Sixth International Congress of Scientific Management was held in England with, for the first time, a Home Section. Thirteen different countries contributed papers to the discussion on ‘How far can Scientific Management contribute to the raising of the Standard of Life’. The Australian Housewives’ Association, the National Norwegian Housewife’s Association and in America, the U.S.A. Bureau of Home Economics are examples of organisations of housewives. In 1935 the Women’s Gas Council came into being for the express purpose of uniting the housewives who use gas in their homes, to organise a common platform on which the architects, manufacturers and the housewives can meet and together help to solve the problem of how to introduce the same efficiency and ease into running of a house as is to be found elsewhere.

The Women’s Gas Council produced education films, four of which are discussed by Miss Halpin. The first was about the kitchen, sometimes described as ‘the nerve centre of the home’. The second film was about some simple methods of cooking which reflected the Council’s desire to get better cooking into British homes. The council organised cookery classes for engaged girls, business girls, unemployed women and the wives of unemployed men. The third film was about ‘Smoke abatement’, and was concerned with how to reduce the amount of air pollution caused by smoke and soot from coal fires. The subject of the last film was Kensal House built by the Gas Light and Coke Company “as a demonstration of the effect on working class life, and of the cost to landlord and tenant, of installing a “model” gas and coke fuel system” through its subsidiary the Capital Housing Association. It housed 380 slum dwellers from the over-crowded areas of North Kensington.

These two documents are illustrative of what a fascinating resource the donation of items from the NUT has proven to be. If you would like to find out more about these items, or any others in the collection, do get in touch.


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Focus on DERA: Creating a trans inclusive environment in schools and colleges

The IOE Library has always collected documents published by government and other relevant bodies in the areas of education, training, children, and families. Today, the Official Publications Collection here at the Library is the largest of our special collections and is highly valued by our users.

In some ways official publications are no different to other areas of publishing and we have witnessed a rapid transition towards a “digital by default” approach. You may already have read our recent blog post about DERA – our online repository founded on the traditions of our printed Official Publications Collection, dedicated to preserving the digital output of government in relation to education – where we highlighted content on the subject of music education. This month, we are highlighting DERA resources that focus on transgender guidance for schools and colleges. The resources, produced by a mixture of unions, councils and charities, are designed for educational staff to support and assist trans pupils, students and colleagues.

*It is important to note that the guidance documents use the words ‘trans’ and ‘transgender’ as umbrella terms for those whose gender identity or expression differs in some way from the sex assigned to them at birth.

Written in 2012, Schools Transgender Guidance produced by The Intercom Trust and Devon & Cornwall Police, was the first transgender guidance of its kind to be incorporated into schools and colleges. Designed to inform educational staff how they can support, inform, protect and enable pupils and students questioning their gender, its chapters cover a broad range of subjects including, identity, discrimination and the school environment. The guidance also contains a small introduction to trans history and a useful booklist for children and teenagers, featuring titles that challenge gender stereotypes, introduce children to a range of family structures and are written from the perspective of trans teen characters.

Many of the suggested titles can be found in the Curriculum Resources section of the IOE Library:

Discussing different families: The Family Book by Todd Parr, Who’s in a Family? Robert Skutch, Picnic in the Park Joe Griffiths, Prince Cinders Babette Cole.

For children: The Sissy Duckling Harvey Fierstein, William’s Doll Charlotte Zolotow, My Princess Boy Cheryl Kilodavis, The Turbulent Term of Tyke Tiler Gene Kemp, Tutus Aren’t My Style Linda Skeers, The Boy in the Dress David Walliams

For teenagers: Luna by Julie Anne Peters, Parrotfish by Ellen Wittlinger

Regularly updated, The Trans Inclusion Schools Toolkit (Version 3.3) produced by Brighton & Hove City Council and the Allsorts Youth Project, was created in consultation with children, young people and their families and features case studies describing the experiences of trans students, plus parent and carer perspectives. In addition to providing information, the toolkit includes practical exercises for educators, such as a Guide to challenging homo / bi / transphobic language and gender stereotyping.

Supporting Trans and Gender Questioning Students, is a short document from The National Education Union, NEU, which discusses the first steps that teachers can take to support gender questioning students in the classroom and across the school. Trans Equality in Schools and Colleges for Teachers and Leaders, from The Teacher’s Union, NASUWT, primarily focuses on supporting trans teachers in the workplace but also discusses best practice guidance for assisting trans pupils and staff and students with family members who are transitioning.

Supporting Transgender Young People: Guidance for Schools in Scotland, produced by LGBT Youth Scotland and The Scottish Trans Alliance is a general guide designed to help primary and secondary education staff in Scotland  support transgender children and young people. Covering steps for good practice and providing practical support, it also contains information specific to Scottish Government policy and legislation. There is also a list of suggested book titles for primary and secondary pupils, some of which can be found here in the IOE Library, in Curriculum Resources:

Primary school pupils: Introducing Teddy: a story about being yourself by Jessica Walton, Are you a boy or are you a girl? by  Sarah Savage and Fox Fisher, Who are You? The Kid’s guide to gender identity  Brook Pessin-Whedbee.

Secondary school pupils: The Art of Being Normal by Lisa Williamson, I am J by Cris Beam, If I was your girl by Meredith Russo

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Focus on DERA (Digital Education Research Archive): Music Education.

The IOE Library has always collected documents published by government and other relevant bodies in the areas of education, training, children, and families. Today, the Official Publications Collection here at the Library is the largest of our special collections and is highly valued by our users.

In some ways official publications are no different to other areas of publishing and we have witnessed a rapid transition towards a “digital by default” approach. You may already have read our recent blog post about DERA – our online repository founded on the traditions of our printed Official Publications Collection, dedicated to preserving the digital output of government in relation to education – where we highlighted content on the subject of school meals. This month, we are highlighting DERA resources focused on music education.

Music has a power of forming the character and should therefore be introduced into the education of the young (Aristotle): this is an idea which is still relevant today as evidenced by Susan Hallam’s 2015 book The power of music: a research synthesis of the impact of actively making music on the intellectual, social and personal development of children and young people.

Documents about music education in England that can be found in DERA include The Importance of Music. A National Plan for Music Education (2011) (NPME). The NPME was produced by The Department for Education and The Department for Culture, Media and Sport in response to the findings of Darren Henley’s Review of Music Education in England (2011) which is also in DERA.

Henley had found that

“…..many children in England benefit from excellent music teaching from excellent teachers. In some parts of the country, the opportunities for children to take part in musical activities are immense. However, some children in England do not currently receive an adequate, let alone good, Music Education.”

In the NPME the government states that

Our vision is to enable children from all backgrounds and every part of England to have the opportunity to learn a musical instrument; to make music with others; to learn to sing; and to have the opportunity to progress to the next level of excellence.

The NPME covers what The Importance of Music means to schools; local authorities/local authority music services; national, regional and local music/arts organisations; private music teachers and other music educators. It acknowledges that schools, due to staffing and financial restrictions, could not be expected to cover all aspects of music education themselves. One of the major innovations implemented as a result of the NMEP was the formation of music education hubs from September 2012. The 120 Music Hubs would

‘….augment and support music teaching in schools so that more children experience a combination of classroom teaching, instrumental and vocal tuition and input from professional musicians’

The hubs would be able to draw on the expertise of a range of education and arts partners, such as local orchestras and choirs and charities.

The government was keen to encourage local innovation but did set core roles for the hubs to ensure national consistency and equality of purpose. The core roles included ensuring that every child aged 5-18 had a chance to learn a musical instrument (other than voice) through whole –class ensemble teaching; providing opportunities to play in ensembles and perform, ensure that clear progression routes were available and affordable for all and to develop a singing strategy .

The NPME initially allocated funding to cover the period April 2012 TO 31 March 2015. It was planned that this would help to remove the historical imbalance in funding between areas. The music education hubs continue to receive government funding and an annual review of their work is provided by Arts Council England.

The government’s continuing support for good quality and inclusive music education is emphasised in another document in DERA. It is a 2016 speech given by the then Schools Minister Nick Gibb entitled. Why good –quality music education matters. One innovation that is highlighted is the Classical 100 music app which was launched by the ABRSM (Associated Board of the Royal School of Music) in collaboration with Classic FM and Decca. This digital resource is freely available to all primary schools and includes recordings of 100 classic pieces of music composed over 10 centuries. The recordings are supplemented by digital teaching resources. Nick Gibb is also keen to refute the accusation that the status of arts in schools has been damaged by the government’s focus on the uptake of EBaac (English Baccalaureate) subjects at GCSE.

Recent reports The State of Play A Review of Music Education in England (2019) and Music Education: State of the Nation (2019) reflect the experiences and thoughts of members from organisations as diverse as the Musicians’ Union (MU) and the All-Party Parliamentary Group for Music Education. These include the instrument teachers, classroom teachers and music managers responsible for the delivery of the NPME in England. They believe strongly in the positive impact of music education on a child’s development both in terms of academic achievement and general well-being. As with many aspects of education recently there are worries about the availability of funds.

The professionals’ concerns are echoed in popular news articles such as the BBC’s Music lessons being stripped out of schools in England by Mark Savage (2019) and The Economist’s Total eclipse of the arts (2018). Also, earlier this year the BPI (British Performing Industry) published the results of a survey of 2,200 music teachers which reveal a growing disparity between the provision of music in state and independent schools. The BPI welcomed the DfE’s (Department for Education) proposed Model Music Curriculum

as an important step in addressing this inequality, but stresses the need for the Government to get its delivery right by ensuring that non-music teachers in primary schools are just as equipped to teach it successfully as those teachers with a greater depth of knowledge.

However in October 2019 the DfE announced that it had delayed publishing the Model Music Curriculum because of concerns over ‘quality’. When the DfE’s Model Music Curriculum is finally published it will be added to the other documents on music education that can be found in DERA.

It is to be hoped that improvements are made to the provision of music education in England because it is recognised that the music industry in the UK adds significantly to the economy and to the prestige of the country worldwide. Musicians are needed to form the orchestras that accompany opera, ballet or musical theatre, or play the organ in churches, or sing in choirs or make and perform popular music. Recent successful musicians such as Adele and Sheku Kanneh-Mason began their musical education whilst at school and it’s important that future generations are given the same opportunities to flourish in music.


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